Left-divisional intrahepatic shunt in a dog

Intrahepatic congenital shunts can be subdivided into left-, central-, and right-divisional. That are typically found in large breed dogs, but can sometimes affect small breeds as in this case. The sonographic features of a left-divisional shunt – also known as patent ductus venosus – are described in this video. Contrast-enhancement CT was eventually performed in […]

The Liver and Portal System

In this video, Marc-André describes the anatomy of the hepatobiliary tract and portal system using 3D-reconstructed images obtained from a normal Beagle dog that was scanned with CT, with the corresponding ultrasound videoloops.[narrated and annotated video, 9:40]
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Traumatic diaphragmatic hernia

A left sided diaphragmatic hernia with displaced left side of the liver, gallbladder and omentum is presented on this video clip. [annotated video, 2:00]

Porcupine Quills -Shoulder region

Ultrasound can be used to locate porcupine quills that appear as double hyperechoic lines crossing muscles. Intra-operative ultrasound is a useful tool to assist and confirm removal. [annotated video, 2:17]
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Refraction artifact

Refraction artifact happens when the ultrasound beam is deviated from its original track as it encounters a smooth, rounded structure. It results in an edge shadowing; examples are presented in this video clip.[annotated video, 1:09]
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Reverberation and ring down artifacts

Reverberation artifact appears as a succession of hyperechoic lines when the ultrasound waves encounter a highly reflective interface such as gas. Ring-down (due to resonance) is often encountered with gas while comet-tail (which is a reverberation artifact) artifact can be seen with metallic FB, surgical clips and mineralized concretions. They both display successive hyperechoic lines.[annotated […]
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Enhancement artifact

Enhancement artifact appears as a zone of increased echogenicity beyond a fluid-filled and hypo-attenuating structure. Examples of this artifacts are presented. [annotated video, 0:49]
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Using a systemic approach when scanning the abdomen

Effective scanning of the abdomen of dogs and cats requires a systematic approach that should be used consistently . This clip describes a standard approach in which all abdominal structures are examined in a specific order and discusses the benefits of intercostal windows. Patient prepration and imaging planes are also discussed. [narrated video, 9:55]
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Shadowing artifact

Shadowing appears as zone of low amplitude echoes (dark) distal to highly reflective structures like calculi. Examples of clean and dirty shadowing are shown. [annotated video, 1:19]
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Mirror image artifact

Mirror image artifact is a copy of a structure, that occurs when the object is close to a highly reflective interface. It often happens at the diaphragm interface.[annotated video, 1:08]
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